- Who Sank the Titanic?: The Final Verdict
- Who Sank the Titanic the Final Verdict
- Who Sank the Titanic: The Final Verdict by Robert J. Strange - ndurcusidips.tk
New other : lowest price. About this product Product Information Designed as the technological marvel of her age, RMS Titanic claimed to be the largest, strongest, safest ship of the early 20th Century; a triumph of centuries of Great Britain s unrivaled shipbuilding expertise. Yet nothing could be further from the truth. The American and British victims of RMS Titanic went to their watery graves never knowing that much of the ship was imperfectly forged from cheap and recycled scrap-iron and that the tragedy was caused by a chain of gross negligence and greed. Crime investigator Robert Strange has studied scientific, forensic evidence from metal raised from the ship s carcass miles deep on the ocean floor, and secrets hidden for a hundred years within the archives of the shipyard that built and launched the Titanic, to answer the question: Who Sank the Titanic?
Who Sank the Titanic: The Final Verdict examines the intense cost-cutting pressures which contributed to Titanic s demise and one of the greatest loss-of-life disasters in maritime history. The book uncovers gross negligence in every area of the ship s planning and construction and accuses her owners, her planners, her builders and the Government ministers who watched her set sail of complicity in one of the greatest mass-homicides in history. A one-time Fleet Street investigative reporter and crime correspondent, he has been fascinated by the Titanic disaster and this book is the result of five years of extensive research.
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Who Sank the Titanic?: The Final Verdict
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Designed as the technological marvel of her age, RMS Titanic claimed to be the largest, strongest, safest ship of the early 20th Century; a triumph of centuries of Great Britain's unrivalled shipbuilding expertise. Yet nothing could be further from the truth. The American and British victims of RMS Titanic went to their watery graves never knowing that much of the ship was imperfectly forged from cheap and recycled scrap-iron and that the tragedy was caused by a chain of gross negligence and greed. Crime investigator Robert Strange has studied scientific, forensic evidence from metal raised from the ship's carcass miles deep on the ocean floor, and secrets hidden for a hundred years within the archives of the shipyard that built and launched the Titanic, to answer the question: 'Who Sank the Titanic?
The book uncovers gross negligence in every area of the ship's planning and construction and accuses her owners, her planners, her builders and the Government ministers who watched her set sail of complicity in one of the greatest mass-homicides in history. Lee was one of the oldest ordinary seamen on board but he still rated his eyesight as excellent. On that night, however, he was finding it hard to see as clearly as he would have wished. My mate happened to pass the remark to me. He said, "Well; if we can see through that we will be lucky.
Who Sank the Titanic the Final Verdict
Even with the reduced visibility, Lee's experienced seaman's instincts told him that ice was somewhere near. She was expecting to dock at New York City's Pier 59, comfortably on schedule, in three days' time. In the warmth below deck, far beneath the two lookouts' icy perch, most of Titanic's 1, passengers and the majority of her crew were in their cabins. Many were already asleep. On the bridge, Quartermaster Robert Hitchens and Sixth Officer James Moody were ensuring that the ship never deviated from its assigned course and speed.
After a good dinner in the First Class restaurant, and confident that all was well with his ship and the world, Captain Edward Smith had retired to his own cabin. He was already sleeping peacefully with the pride of a man with a job well done. Even further below the two feet-stampingly cold sailors in the crow'snest, Titanic's three propellers were powering the ship through the Atlantic waters at a little over 20 knots, around 23 miles per hour.
The 45,ton ship was seemingly an irresistible force. But disastrously, around half a mile ahead and directly in the ship's planned path, lay an almost immoveable object: a millionton iceberg. The enormous iceberg would have been easy for lookouts Fleet and Lee to spot were it not for one remarkable scientific phenomenon: water undergoes a peculiar change when it freezes. Cubic metre for cubic metre, the solid ice weighs around ten per cent less than it does when it is liquid water. That makes ice float, whether as ice cubes in a cocktail in one of Titanic's luxurious restaurants, or as an Atlantic Ocean iceberg.
But because the density differential between liquid and solid is so small, most of the ice lies underwater.
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Like all of its kind, the mountain of ice facing Titanic was hiding nine-tenths of its gargantuan bulk beneath the waterline. Lying in wait for the unsuspecting ship, the iceberg had already travelled on its own decade-long voyage to reach that spot. The ice began life, tens of thousands of years ago, as billions of individual, freshwater snowflakes falling across the island of Greenland. Over millennia, the weight of more and more layers of snow crushed those flakes into ice that flowed outwards from the mountainous interior towards the sea. What had once been snow had now become part of the Jakobshavn Glacier, one of the fastest flowing rivers of ice on Earth.
A decade before Titanic's launch, the freshwater ice had reached the shores of Disko Bay, on Greenland's west coast. To this day, the shoreline there is the birthplace of most Atlantic icebergs. With what would have been an ear-splitting crash had there been human ears to hear it, a wall of ice calved from the face of the glacier and splashed spectacularly into the already ice-packed waters of the Ilulissat Icefjord: the leading edge of the Jakobshavn had just given birth to the most infamous iceberg in history. The breadth and depth of the iceberg meant that its keel scraped along the sea bottom and its sides jostled for space against bergs big and small in the fjord's shallow channel.
Progress was slow for the next six or seven years. Finally, inexorable pressure from the still-moving glacier at its rear squeezed the iceberg out of the fjord and into open water. Wind and waves pushed from all directions on the portion of ice that peeped above the waterline. But, with most of the iceberg's massive bulk under the surface of the water, its course was determined predominantly by the complex ocean currents. Finally freed into open water at the end of the fjord, it set off on a year-long journey towards Melville Bay on the northwest coast of Greenland.
Who Sank the Titanic: The Final Verdict by Robert J. Strange - ndurcusidips.tk
A further year saw it traverse Baffin Bay and float midway down the coast of Baffin Island. Growing fractionally smaller year by year as it melted freshwater into the surrounding ocean, the iceberg drifted relentlessly to the south-east. All of the major shipping lines carrying passengers on the busy North Atlantic run between Europe and the USA knew about the dangers of ice. They had agreed among themselves to always travel on what they believed to be safe routes across the ocean.
The mutually agreed, one-way routes to and from America had several advantages: they helped avoid collisions, they increased the chance of shipwreck survivors being found by another vessel, and, in theory, they kept all ships to the south of any drifting fields of Arctic ice. But the ice season in was to prove an extraordinary one. The Hydrography Office of the United States Navy had recorded more reports than usual of icebergs drifting further south.
The abnormally cold weather of early January of that year may have helped the bigger icebergs survive for longer in unusually cold Atlantic waters. In addition, there was another unusual set of circumstances that was to affect the fate of Titanic on that April night in A high-pressure weather system had been sitting over the Northern Atlantic, bringing clear skies, low night-time temperatures and barely a breath of wind. On a dark night, most icebergs are more easily seen when waves are breaking into spray and pure white foam around their base.
But the dead-calm seas through which Titanic was sailing were producing no waves at all.
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- WHO SANK THE TITANIC? The Final Verdict?
- WHO SANK THE TITANIC? The Final Verdict.
- Who Sank the Titanic?: The Final Verdict.
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Silent and unseen, on seas as still as a millpond, the iceberg drifted slowly onwards into the shipping lanes of the North Atlantic Ocean. Despite the younger lookout's lesser experience, but perhaps because of his younger eyes, it was Able-Seaman Fleet who first spotted danger.
Initially, he made out just a vague shape, perhaps half a mile away. Fleet struck hard on the crow's-nest bell hanging just above the two lookouts' heads: once, twice and then a third time, the alarm signal denoting a sighting dead ahead.
He pushed past Lee to snatch up the telephone on the starboard side of the nest and punched the button that instantly connected him to the ship's bridge down below. His call was answered by Titanic's Sixth Officer, James Moody, although Fleet at the time had no idea to which officer he was speaking.
I got an answer straight away — 'What did you see? He said: 'Thank you. That is why I rang them up.
It was not very large when I first saw it, as large as two tables put together; it kept getting larger as we were getting nearer it. When we were alongside, it was a little bit higher than the forecastle head; 50 or 60 feet above the water.
His fellow lookout, Lee, later described the moments leading up to the impact to the British Wreck Commissioner's Court Inquiry:. As soon as the reply came back, the helm must have been put either hard-a-starboard or very close to it, because she veered to port, and it seemed almost as if she might clear it It was a dark mass that came through that haze and there was no white appearing until it was just close alongside the ship, and that was just a fringe at the top. The ship seemed to heel to port as she struck the berg